Workplace bullying can be defined as the “repeated, malicious, health-endangering mistreatment of one employee . . . by one or more employees.” See GARY NAMIE & RUTH NAMIE, THE BULLY AT WORK 3 (2003, rev. ed.).
Common bullying behaviors include: false accusations of mistakes and errors; hostile glares and other intimidating non-verbal behaviors; yelling, shouting, and screaming; exclusion and the “silent treatment”; use of put-downs, insults, and excessively harsh criticism; and unreasonably heavy work demands. See Loraleigh Keashly & Karen Jagatic, U.S. Perspectives on Workplace Bullying, in BULLYING AND EMOTIONAL ABUSE IN THE WORKPLACE: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES IN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE 36-37 (Stale Einarsen, et al., eds., 2003); NAMIE & NAMIE, supra, at 18.
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